nScrypt 3D Printing Electronics for US Air Force in Harsh Military Environments
3D printing is going hardcore for the military, with a team of developers recently testing materials for electronics meant to withstand harsh environments. The details are revealed in “ Mechanical and Temperature Resilience of Multi-Material Systems for Printed Electronics Packaging ,” outlining the use of two different 3D printing techniques for comparing materials that would be suitable in remote locations under challenging conditions.
Research and testing were performed by:
U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation
Brigham Young University
S. Army RDECOM-ARDEC
Sciperio (research group for nScrypt )
The nScrypt Factory in a Tool (FiT) platform, accompanied by a SmartPump microdispensing tool head, was the main system relied on for 3D printing the device meant to simulate electronics packaging. The sample part was comprised of cured conductive paste circuit (DuPont CB028) on a substrate (using Kapton® and FR4) and a packaging cylinder without a cap.
Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) for materials studied
A powder bed fusion laser projection system developed by the University of South Florida, known as Large Area Projection Sintering (LAPS), was used to make comparison samples. The goal was to create and test electronics packages that would not only be strong enough to hold up to difficult environments, but also protect the materials inside—meaning that thermal expansion had to be kept to a minimum to avoid stresses on the samples.
LAPS system, which fuses entire 2D cross-sections with a single quick exposure. A powder hopper then deposits powder before a counter-rotating roller levels a new uniform layer for sintering. The thermal camera which monitors the process is not shown here for clarity.
Following Military Standard (MIL STD) 883 K, the device was tested for resiliency in terms of:
Die shear strength
High G loading by mechanical shock
Although there were some concerns regarding “open circuits, increases in resistance, and delamination,” overall the results were successful as the DW Master Bond epoxy devices made with the nScrypt FiT were able to stand up to high temperatures, and both mechanical and thermal shock. They also performed extremely well when evaluated for die shear strength failure criteria.
While this project propels the military further ahead in creating durable devices, it also serves as a great example of the advantages in using hybrid digital manufacturing—relying not just on the wonders of 3D printing via extrusion or paste deposition here, but also in using convention techniques when required, such as milling, laser machining, and more.
“Hybrid manufacturing can also decrease the device form factor by conforming...